Cyprus is divided into four major geological zones; The Troodos Ophiolite forming the older centre of the island, the Mamonia Complex sporadically located in the west, the Circum-Troodos Sequences in the periphery and the Kyrenia Range in the north of the island. (Cyprus Geological Survey, 2021) (Figure XX).
The Troodos Ophiolite is regarded as the most complete ophiolite sequence in the world (reference) consisting of plutonic, intrusive, and volcanic rocks. Lithologies range from deep mantle ultramafics such as Serpentinite, Harzburgite, Dunite, Wherlite, Pyroxenite, into mafic gabbro, doleritic dykes and basaltic pillow lavas (Cyprus Geological Survey, 2021)
The Black Pine Project is situated within the ophiolitic lithologies, south of the Arakapas Transform Fault within the Limassol forest region of the Troodos Ophiolite. This southern area of the Troodos Ophiolite is predominantly composed of ultramafic rocks such as Serpentinite, Hazburgite, Dunite, Wehrlite, and Pyroxenite (Reference). However, the entire ophiolite sequence can be observed in the Southern Troodos, grading from the ultramafics into Gabbros, Sheeted Dyke Complex and Upper and Lower Basaltic Billow Lavas as well as smaller outcrops of Plagiogranite (Reference).
The geology of Troodos is consistent with ophiolite complexes, which are believed to represent fragments of the ocean floor (Constantinou, 2012, p.5). The mountain range was formed through sea-floor spreading and was lifted to its present position due to tectonic movements. Massive copper sulphide deposits, mainly composed of pyrite and chalcopyrite, are located in its periphery in the geological formation known as the pillow lavas (Constantinou, 2012, p.5) (Fig. 1). Because of these deposits Cyprus is considered even today to be one of the five richest countries in copper per surface area in the world (Constantinou, 2007, p.343).
According to Constantinou (1992a, p.339) since the mines opened in the earlier part of the twentieth century and for a period of forty years, 50% of the island’s exports were products of the mining industry. In the same period 15-25% of all the taxes collected and 50-70% of income tax derived from the mining industry (Panayiotou, 1989, p.38).
Geoff has qualifications in geology and finance, and specialises in the valuation and assessment of mineral projects. He has worked with mining companies for over 20 years, and spent 7 years in buy/sell side roles as a mining analyst in Sydney for local and international firms. Since 2013 he has advised public and private investors on mining and exploration opportunities globally with a particular focus on pre-development gold and base-metal assets.